List of Careers in the medical field

Patients with urinary problems sometimes require surgery.Patients with urinary problems sometimes require surgery.

Stockbyte/Stockbyte/Getty Images

Of the many medical specialties available for physicians, several deal with the urinary system. These physicians may provide medical management, surgical management or gynecological management. The primary specialties that deal with the urinary tract system are urology, nephrology, gynecology and transplant surgery. Several subspecialties, such as female pelvic medicine and reconstructive surgery, also exist. All require extensive training and a great deal of responsibility.


Urologists provide medical and surgical management for disorders of the urinary tract in both men and women. They may diagnose and treat urologic disease, cancers, deformities and injuries. After medical school, a urologist must complete at least five years of training, including four years in an approved urology program and one year of surgical training. Urologists perform procedures in their offices as well as endoscopic procedures and major surgeries. They also provide medical management for conditions such as incontinence. Urologists may specialize in urologic oncology, pediatric urology, stone disease, infertility, impotence, female urology and incontinence, and laparoscopy. Urologists earned a median salary of $413, 746 in 2011, according to the American Medical Group Association.


Nephrologists begin their careers in internal medicine. After medical school, an internist must spend three years in an internal medicine residency and take the internal medicine board exam before she studies nephrology for an additional two to three years. Nephrologists provide medical management to patients with kidney disease. They also provide care to kidney transplant patients and people with kidney failure, treating the latter with dialysis. Some nephrologists specialize in kidney failure or high blood pressure; pediatric nephrology is another subspecialty. Nephrologists earned a median salary of $259, 776 in 2011, according to the AMGA.

Related Reading: Careers in Medical Sociology


Gynecologists specialize in care for female health problems. Since the female reproductive tract and the urinary tract system are physically co-located, gynecologists often care for women who have urinary problems such as urinary tract infections. They may also perform surgery that involves the bladder and urethra. A gynecologist spends a minimum of four years in residency training and may go on for a fellowship. In addition to gynecology, most doctors in this specialty also practice obstetrics. The median salary for obstetrician-gynecologists in 2011 was $302, 638, according to the AMGA.

Transplant Surgeons

When the kidneys fail, dialysis can help keep patients alive, but a kidney transplant can restore health. Transplant surgeons perform the surgeries that allow renal failure patients to become healthy again. Transplant surgery is a subspecialty of general surgery, which requires a minimum of five years in residency. After completing the general surgical residency, the aspiring transplant surgeon goes on for a two- or three-year fellowship in transplant surgery. Transplant surgeons manage the surgical process of kidney transplantation, including both the removal of the diseased kidney and the insertion of a healthy kidney.The median salary of general surgeons was $367, 315 in 2011, according to the AMGA.

Related Reading: Surgical technician certification online

It's Interesting

  • Ohio Institute of Health Careers, with campus locations in Columbus and Elyria, Ohio, provides students with the training needed to begin a career in the healthcare field. Originally established in Columbus in 1966, the Elyria campus opened in 2003. Ohio Institute of Health Careers is accredited by the Accrediting Commission of Career Schools...

You might also like

Train for a Career in the Medical Field with IOT
Train for a Career in the Medical Field with IOT
Medical Administrative Specialist
Medical Administrative Specialist
RA Bock Diagnostics RA Bock Single Head Cardiology Stethoscope with Pressure Sensitive Diaphragm
BISS (RA Bock Diagnostics)
  • **WE HAVE A COMPETITOR who is leaving BOGUS Negative Reviews on our STETHOSCOPES. He does this every time we get a bunch of 5 star reviews. Here is an example of...
  • Our mission is to provide less expensive medical diagnostics that have excellent function and to stand behind the products we sell. I can guarantee you will be impressed...
  • Please give this one a try and see for yourself. Better yet buy this along with a $200 Littman Master Cardiology model or any other more expensive model on Amazon...
  • Lifetime warranty against manufacturer defects includes the binaurals, tubing, and stainless steel stethoscope head.
  • The RA Bock Single Head Cardiology Stethoscope with Tunable Diaphragm that responds with a simple pressure change to capture low and high-frequency sounds similar...

Copyright © . All Rights Reserved